An analysis of discrimination against women in the workplace in different literary works by various

Importantly, such discrimination against women largely can be attributed to human resources HR policies and HR-related decision-making. As a consequence, women might be inclined to use justifications to discriminate in order to maintain positive interpersonal evaluations.

Institutional gender discrimination examples

This item taps into the gender differentiation component of sexism [ 20 , 25 ]. Drawing on this literature, we propose that beliefs that imbue women with specific abilities for domestic and parental work ensure that the traditional distribution of gender roles is maintained. Taken together, these findings suggest that a woman is more likely than a man to express sexist bias without being at risk of appearing sexist. The two databases slightly differed regarding the involved countries, some of which did not participate in the two survey waves. Basically, the reason why people rely on justifications is to express their genuine prejudices without appearing biased. As a consequence, women might be inclined to use justifications to discriminate in order to maintain positive interpersonal evaluations. Motherhood myths as a justification for gender discrimination Compared with other intergroup relations, gender relations present some unique features e. In order to maintain consistency across the analyses, we selected 18 countries that participated in both survey waves i.

In order to maintain consistency across the analyses, we selected 18 countries that participated in both survey waves i. Table 1 Means, standard deviations and correlation matrix of the indicators.

Research paper on gender inequality in the workplace

Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. Specifically, they demonstrated that the myths according to which immigrants take jobs away from the host society members and increase crime rates mediated the relationship between prejudice and opposition to immigration see also [ 19 ]. Relying on this literature Pereira, Vala and Costa-Lopes [ 18 ] provided evidence of the mediational role of myths about social groups on the prejudice-support for discriminatory measures relationship. Another possible moderator examined in the present study is the respondents' gender. Glick and Fiske [ 20 ] conceptualised sexism as a multidimensional construct that encompasses hostile and benevolent sexism, both of which having three components: paternalism, gender differentiation and heterosexuality. Specifically, they demonstrated that the myths according to which immigrants take jobs away from the host society members and increase crime rates mediated the relationship between prejudice and opposition to immigration see also [ 19 ]. Comparable policies have been implemented in the Asian-Pacific area, with countries including gender equality into broad anti-discrimination laws e. Hence this database enables a test of the proposed mediational model on a large sample of female and male respondents and data gathered 18 years apart. According to system justification theory [ 63 , 64 ], people are motivated to defend and justify the status quo, even at the expense of their ingroup. In addition, they convey gender stereotype describing women in positive terms e. Table 1 Means, standard deviations and correlation matrix of the indicators. Taken together, these findings suggest that a woman is more likely than a man to express sexist bias without being at risk of appearing sexist. In this respect, some countries have incorporated legislation on equal treatment of women and men into general anti-discrimination laws e. An additional argument for assuming that women may rely on motherhood myths lies in the system justification motive. The two databases slightly differed regarding the involved countries, some of which did not participate in the two survey waves.

Furthermore, when employees interact with organizational decision makers during HR practices, or when they are told the outcomes of HR-related decisions, they may experience personal discrimination in the form of sexist comments. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

For instance, Masser and Abrams [ 6 ] found in an experimental study that the higher the participants scored in hostile sexism, the more they were likely to recommend a male candidate rather than a female one for a managerial position.

Journal articles on discrimination in the workplace

Taken together, these findings suggest that a woman is more likely than a man to express sexist bias without being at risk of appearing sexist. Alternatively, women expressing sexism against their ingroup members are at risk of being negatively evaluated for violating the prescription of feminine niceness [ 61 , 62 ]. There is evidence that gender inequalities in the workplace stem, at least in part, from the discrimination directed against women. Hence this database enables a test of the proposed mediational model on a large sample of female and male respondents and data gathered 18 years apart. In fact, the issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies and institutional measures in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination with respect to recruitment, promotion and job assignment. According to social dominance theory, justification of practices that sustain social inequality arises through the endorsement of legitimizing myths [ 13 ]. Motherhood myths as a justification for gender discrimination Compared with other intergroup relations, gender relations present some unique features e. Data was recoded so that the higher scores reflected higher sexism. Glick and Fiske [ 20 ] conceptualised sexism as a multidimensional construct that encompasses hostile and benevolent sexism, both of which having three components: paternalism, gender differentiation and heterosexuality.

According to system justification theory [ 6364 ], people are motivated to defend and justify the status quo, even at the expense of their ingroup. As a consequence, sexist behaviours carried out by males are perceived as more sexist than the same behaviours enacted by females [ 5960 ].

In the USA, for instance, the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Pay Act provided the legal foundation for the implementation of anti-discrimination laws within the workplace.

gender inequality in the workplace pdf

Gender inequalities are especially blatant in the workplace. From this perspective, the belief that every group in society possesses some advantages and disadvantages increases the belief that the system is balanced and fair [ 2965 ].

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Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths